One could say it is a deserted continent. Although it is smaller than Europe less than 23 million people live there. The name derives from the Latin attribute “Terra Australis” meaning the “South Earth”, used by old Europeans to name just discovered land. It is an exceptional part of the world. Australia is a land of diversified landscape and rich, unusual flora and fauna. You can see outstanding beaches with coral reefs, deserted deserts, snowy mountains and tropical forests there. Kangaroos, koala bears, venomous spiders and sharks are also to be found. Everyone can find something interesting for themselves in Australia.
Life is centered on the continental coastline. Major cities and the mildest climate which enables the culture and the animal husbandry are on the coast. The deeper into the continent the more difficult conditions are to be found. The so-called “outback” of Australia is in the centre of the continent with inaccessible deserts and semideserts, and temperatures coming up to 50 degrees Celsius in the summer. You will see an Aborigine village more often than a settlement of “whites” here.
Australians life seems to be a continuous fight against elements, verging from extremes to extremes. They have to endure total heat causing droughts and fires as well as huge and continuous downpours causing floods. Due to the diversity and the natural richness no other country in the world has such an amount of national parks as Australia.
It has been called Ayers Rock up till recent times. It is a rock formation built of sandstone and is located in the central part of Australia, in the Northern Territory. It is 300 metres high raised above a plain surrounding it. It has 8 km in the circumference. For many years Uluru was regarded the biggest monolith in the world. However it was dethroned by Mount Augustus in Western Australia. Today even oppinion about Uluru being a monolith is divided. Without a doubt Uluru is a holy place for Aborigines. Many Aborigine wall paintings are in caves.
It is a metalled road 620 km long, stretching out through the territory of Southern Australia between Marla and Marree towns. It leads through semidesert areas with the sparse flora and a long way from any civilization. There are numerous springs supplied by the Large Artesian Basin along the trail . The road crosses the national park “Eyre Lake” and two settlements William Creek and Oodnadatta. It was built in the place of an ancient trade route exploited by Aborigines before the appearance of white people in Australia.
The longest river in Australia which is 2375 km long. It has it source in the west hillsides of the Australian Alps, in the range of Snowy Mountains. It flows with wide meanders westwards through flat areas. Through its respectable length the river constitutes natural border between New Noon Wales and Wiktoria states. In its final part of arond 500 km it cuts Southern Australia and ends in Alexandrina Lake..
The port, the capital city, and the major city of Wiktoria state, and the second in terms of population urbanized area in Australia (after Sydney) is inhabited by 4 million people. It was established on 8th June 1835 on the Yarra river by a group of free settlers in contrast to other cities which were penal colonies. It owes its fast growth to discovery of gold in centre Wiktoria in the 50s in the 19th century. In 1901-1927 Melbourne was the capital city of Australia. Then, the capital was moved to Canberra. Today Melbourne has the biggest amount of Victorian buildings in the world after London, and remarkable number of immigrants from China and south-east Asia. It was twice recognised by the The Economist magazine as “the best city for living in the world”. It is the largest cluster of the Australian Polish community and the place where the honourable consulate of the Republic of Poland is located.